So here they are, the drunk driving statistics: A drunk driver kills someone every 39 minutes. Sensation-seeking makes drivers show the high-speed traveling state. The two parameters were considered the representative of driving performance. The significant differences for the indicators of SP_AVG, SP_SD, and LP_SD between drinking driving state and normal state showed that they can contribute to the detection of drinking driving state. The haste in passing the badly drafted Road Transport amendment Bill, however, shows that the government isn’t really interested in resolving overall road safety issues, or even drunk driving. It was revealed in Figure 3 that all of the abilities on perception, attention, direction-sense, judgment, controlling, and reaction of most drivers were impaired by alcohol. The standardized discriminant function to identify drinking driving states at BAC level of 0.09% and normal states is Brown, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, M. C. Flom, and R. T. Jones, “Marijuana, alcohol, and combined drug effects on the time course of glare recovery,”. Of the within-subjects effects, the main effect of BAC was statistically significant, ,  , and partial . The decline of driving ability decreases the steadiness of vehicle travelling speed. Even causing death by negligence is only punishable with up to two years’ jail, or a fine, or both. The pairwise comparisons showed that SP_AVG at the three BAC levels was significantly higher than that at normal level, respectively (). Alcohol’s effects on visual performance are most obvious when it comes to the judgment of moving objects and the process of different information at the same time [10, 11]. All the participants possess valid driver’s licenses more than 3 years (average = 3.6). The higher the BAC level is, the more accurate the discrimination is. No significant difference was found about LP_AVG. Driving drunk doesn’t just result in arrest. Additionally, the simulator provides many other parameters that describe vehicle’s traveling conditions, including the traveling speed, lane position, displacement, and acceleration. The results showed that drinking driving with higher BAC level was easier to discriminate from normal driving. In 2018, there were 54 deaths due to drunk driving, or 0.85 per cent of overall road crash casualties, and in 2017, 58 or 0.86 per cent. 12. The analysis of accident rate showed that higher BAC level would lead to higher accident rate. In 2010, the most recent year for which cost data is available, these deaths and damages contributed to a cost of $44 billion that year. Lawmakers were simply caving in to pressure from religious fundamentalists who are intent on imposing their way of life on other Malaysians with different lifestyles. Mauchly’s test of sphericity for LP_SD was statistically significant, and degrees of freedom were also adjusted. This compared … Second, we count up the number of accidents and the accident rate to illustrate dangers at different BAC levels. Driving while intoxicated (DWI) continues to be a major societal concern, exacting a high personal and financial cost. The study should also consider more road geometries, such as curve and intersection. Each participant was asked to perform the four visits with a random order to balance the effect of the order on drivers. The legal limit for alcohol in the bloodstream while driving in Malaysia is 80 milligrams per deciliter, or 100 milliliters. On the other hand, the results can support the study on drivers’ driving model, especially for safety driving. Rather than focus on long jail terms (which were already significant in the original Road Transport Act with minimum three years’ jail for causing death while drunk driving), policymakers should look at various policies to prevent driving under influence, such as publicising sobriety checkpoints, as recommended by the US’ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Consequences of Drunk Driving in Malaysia Unlike in England, Australia, Germany and even in other western countries, where “drunken driving” is a major cause of accidents, in Malaysia, the cause of accidents due to drivers who are “drunk” is surprisingly negligible. They can provide some references for the discrimination of drinking driving state and making countermeasure to it. Equation (1) can be used to calculate the dose for the expected BAC level: In this paper, we mainly paid attention to the driving performance on urban straight roadway segment, which was the most common road in driving process. ANOVA with repeated measures was used to analyze the differences of each indicator at the four states. In 2011, over 1.2 million drivers were arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol. The laws have been enacted to prohibit driving after drinking and have imposed severe penalties on violators . Eight teenagers die every day in alcohol-related car crashes. No within-subjects effects were statistically significant for LP_AVG. Each subject drove in two random scenarios and therefore had 10 urban straight roadway segments data. Participants were investigated after drinking driving with BAC level of 0.09%. For the first time, less than 1,000 youth under 21 died in a drunk driving crash. The limit, for example, is 0.02% in Sweden; 0.05% in Israel, Korea, and Australia; and 0.08% in Canada, England, Mexico, and the United States. First, the signatures of drivers’ subjective feelings under the influence of alcohol were summarized with distribution proportion analysis. Malaysia … The government should also promote a culture of designated drivers and carpooling, like in developed countries. Linnoila et al. ... according to the Department of Statistics. Lane position was defined as the distance between the center of the vehicle and the lane line on the right. These conclusions are the basis of the study of drinking driving. Bars and nightclubs in various countries have employed safe distancing strategies, Nearly one in five Malaysian adults is diabetic, RM3.6 billion in tax revenue from alcohol sales, One Size Can Only Fit One Person: Personalised Health Care And Cancer, Malaysia Only Has One Shot To End Covid-19, ‘My Entire Family Got Covid-19, Nobody Called Us’, MOH: Home Quarantine Close Contacts, Test Only Those With Symptoms, PM Suggests Nationalising Private Health Care Under Emergency, At Sungai Buloh, Two Doctors Manage 30 Sick Covid Patients, Private Hospitals Taking In Covid-19, Non-Covid Public Patients. Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin made a “joke” at a Perikatan Nasional convention Tuesday that “it may be a good thing” if pubs and nightclubs “don’t open at all” after the end of the Recovery Movement Control Order (RMCO). Some researchers have found that alcohol impairs behaviors such as steering and braking at BACs ranging from 0.05% to 0.10% [16, 17]. One survey found that Americans took over 159 million alcohol-impaired driving trips in a single year. The distribution about safety attitude, for example, meant that 60% of the 25 participants (15) were more adventurous when drinking driving than normal driving and 24% of them (6) were more cautious. They all had statistically significant linear trend as a function of BAC. The statistical analysis results of driving performance indicated that average speed, speed standard deviation, and lane position standard deviation were significantly higher under the influence of alcohol. Firstly, all the drinking driving states at different BAC levels were put in one group to identify normal driving state without considering different BAC levels; then, drinking driving states with different BAC levels were separately distinguished from normal driving state. The pairwise comparisons explained that LP_SD at the BAC levels of 0.06% and 0.09% was significant higher than it was at the level of 0.00% (). The statistical results of the questionnaire showed that most of the participants admitted that they were affected by alcohol on many aspects. Civil liberties are not just about fighting for the “good” things, like the right to practice religion. The case is being investigated under Section 45A(1) of the Road Transport Act for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. To explore the impact of alcohol on drivers and driving performance, the experiment was designed to collect 25 participants’ subjective feelings and their driving performance data. Driving at higher BAC level will be more dangerous, even in simple driving environment. According to a study done by the Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research, about 23.3% of drivers in fatal accidents were tested positive for alcohol, according to this study done in 2012. The data was analyzed according to the following method. [13] indicated that a driver’s ability to operate a vehicle was affected at a BAC level of 0.035%. Almost 33% of all drivers arrested or convicted of drunk driving are repeat offenders. The WHO report said road traffic deaths in Malaysia involving alcohol comprised less than 1 per cent of fatalities. According to the Department of Statistics Malaysia’s (DOSM) latest data released in October 2019, a total of 168,168 deaths were recorded in Malaysia in 2017 and 172,031 deaths in 2018. Generally, TBW for men is as follows: Chinese liquor (46% of alcohol content) was used for the drinking. They agreed and signed an informed consent before participating in the study and were paid for the experiment. These statistics correspond to our survey results that show 45 percent of men and 35 percent of women admitted to driving drunk. Nagoshi et al. b) Author’s argument/ stand Government should take a holistic action by tightening the existing laws against reckless drivers c) Recognise the types of supporting details in a text as well as any flaws in reasoning if any - … (i)Under the influence of alcohol, most of drivers tend to be more impulsive and adventurous and their abilities of judgment, vigilance, recognition, reaction, and controlling were impaired obviously. In each time, subjects were invested about their state before simulated driving experiment to ensure that they were not affected by any other unexpected factors. Drinking and Driving. Therefore, the indicator of SP_SD showed significantly higher when drinking driving than normal driving. This dropped to 0.85 per cent (54 cases) in 2018. The aim is to prevent one from getting behind the wheel while intoxicated in the first place, not to “catch” offenders in the act of drunk driving. The objectives of this paper are mainly the following: (1) to summarize signatures of drivers’ subjective feelings under the influence of alcohol, (2) reveal the effects of drinking driving at different BAC levels on driving performance, and (3) try to identify driving state based on the indicators of driving performance. Therefore, drinking driving will produce a high probability to serious accidents. The legal limit for drinking is 80 mg of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood. Each aspect of the investigation included three options, which meant worse, invariant, and better, respectively, contrast with normal driving. On February 16, it was reported that a suspected drunk driver rammed his vehicle into another car and three motorcycles, killing one person and injuring four others at Km17.5 of the Lekas Highway. Drunk driving statistics in Malaysia As reported in the Malay Mail online news dated 11 th June 2020, in the year of 2018, 54 out of 6,284 road accident deaths in Malaysia were caused by drunk drivers – a relatively small proportion (0.86%). They were asked to have a break about 5–10 minutes in middle of simulated driving process to avoid fatigue. Nilai. (iii)On urban straight roadway segment, SP_AVG, SP_SD, and LP_SD were all significantly higher when drinking driving than those when normal state. Copyright © 2014 Xiaohua Zhao et al. In 2014, 9,967 people died in alcohol-related traffic accidents . The objective of the analysis was to explore the signatures of alcohol impairment. Why should both types of driving be treated differently when they result in the same outcome – death? In 2018, 10,511 people died in a drunk driving crash – on average 1 every 50 minutes. The results showed that SP_AVG was significantly higher in drinking driving state than in normal state (, ). The accident rate is of positive correlation with BAC level. To explore the discriminant ability of the driving performance indicators, firstly, the data at the three BAC levels were integrated into one group to distinguish normal state; then, drinking driving states at the three BAC levels were considered one group, respectively, to identify normal state. A drunk driver injures someone every minute. General Facts and Statistics on Drinking and Driving: 90% of All Drunk Driving Happens After Drinking With Family, Friends, and Coworkers. But the result provided reference for discrimination of driving state based on driving performance. [19] indicated that male drivers, affected by drinking driving, were more impulsive and sensation-seeking than female. contributing less than 4 per cent of fatal road traffic accidents, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Malaysia has the third highest fatality rate from road traffic accidents in Asean and Asia, WHO’s Global Status Report on Road Safety 2018. Another driving state was the normal state, which was considered the control state. The driving simulator was shown in Figure 1. From the experiment, participants’ subjective feelings were investigated to summarize the effect on driving state, and the parameters of vehicle’s travelling condition were collected to analyze the signatures of driving performance. The pairwise comparison was analyzed using post hoc -test. The driving attitude and safety attitude showed driving tendencies of drivers. However, the driving performance is the basic characteristic of vehicle’s travelling and the urban straight roadway segment is the most common road geometry. It has been indicated that alcohol would negatively affect drivers’ ability on judgment of following distance and depth perception [9]. Firstly, all the drinking driving states at different BAC levels were put in one group to identify normal driving state without considering different BAC levels; then, drinking driving states with different BAC levels were separately distinguished from normal driving state. A friend of mine doesn’t imbibe because she’s allergic to alcohol. Drunk driving has a high probability to lead to serious accidents. In the experiment, a blowing-type alcohol detector was used to test drivers’ BAC level. LP_SD at the BAC level of 0.09% was significantly higher than at the BAC level of 0.03%. It indicated that even in the simple environment, drinking driving had a high probability to result in an accident. 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